The core of my presentation will be focused on the principle that all technologies should be regarded as ‘cultural instruments’ which are not truly neutral, any more than are the underlying strategies and methodologies that we implement within our research projects. Indeed, to a certain extent, technology as well as methodology and strategy together predetermine the result. As an example I will explain my experience within Mediterranean archaeology. Until quite recently this has operated for many decades on the basis of documentary studies, excavation and field-walking survey. In the last decade, however, there has been an increasing recognition of the extraordinary complexity of stratified landscapes and new approaches have been developed and put into operation. The most important innovation has probably been the widespread acceptance of the necessity to identify, process and integrate very broad and diverse kinds of datasets. Archaeometry, earth sciences, remote sensing and computer science now play a central role in landscape research, sometimes dramatically changing historical perceptions and our understating of past landscapes.